4. The Hossbach Memorandum
6. The Game on Danzig
Foreign Policy on Basis of Moral ValuesSuch a foreign policy are characterized by that the nation is fighting the evil and supporting the good.
The U.S. President John F. Kennedy expressed in a speech in 1961 the essence of "Foreign policy based on moral values".
He said that the United States would "pay any price, bear any burden, endure any difficulty, support any friend, confront any foe to ensure the success and survival of freedom."
Idealistic young people engaged in foreign policy based on moral values.
Ordinary voters are not aware of the prerequisites for foreign policy. They are busy with their daily life and work and know nothing of intelligence reports, the ambassadors' reports or the military strength of foreign nations. They are not trained to analyze an economic or military situation, and they have in general poor knowledge of history. They know basicly only their own moral attitudes, namely what they impulsively think is right or wrong, and based on these they will take their decisions.
Therefore, foreign policy in democracies tends to be guided by moral values.
The modern socialists great interest in foreign policy arises out of moral attitudes like solidarity with developing countries, universal respect for human rights, democracy and tolerance towards other races and religions. The question of the security of their own nation, they seem to find less important.
A. J. P Taylor believed that especially the British policy on Germany in the interwar period was more dictated by moral views, than it was governed by real policy.
Foreign Policy based on real IssuesA nation cheering real policy seeks alliances with his enemies enemy. Nothing is sacred, apart from the nation's freedom and survival.
The real policy point of view is often expressed by the Jesuit saying: "The end justifies the means".
The book "The Prince" by Nicolo Machiavelli is often perceived as a handbook in real policy.
The ancient historian Thucydides wrote "The Peloponnesian War" about the war between Sparta and Athens. He is assumed to had believed that Athens lost the war, because it was a democracy. Voters are too easily stirret up to unwise actions. Many think that Thucydide's book is an illustrative lesson-book in real policy.
Winston Churchill (1874 - 1965) was supporter of real policy.
Winston Churchill and Lloyd George could their history, and they knew that it was now or never. Germany grew larger and stronger day by day. Sooner or later it would turn against West. For them it was not a question of moral and natural law principles. For them it was about England's freedom and very existence.
In a speech the 27. of May Churchill declared: "If her Majesty's government, having neglected our defense, after having thrown Czecho-Slovakia away with all that Czecho-Slovakia implies in terms of military power, after having committed ourselves to defend Poland and Romania, now refuses and throws Russia's indispensable help away and thus in the worst way leads us into the worst war, it will hardly deserve the generosity, which it had recived by it's countrymen."
Real political measures can strike back. Like they did, when USA supported it's enemy's enemy, Obama Bin Laden, and his Jihad fighters in Afganistan.
Patrick J. Buchanan has just written a book (January 2009) -
Churchill, Hitler and The Unnecessary War - see a review:
The Good War? Maybe Not - The American Spectator
The book is a repeat of Taylor's message, but with a special sting against Churchill. And it is also true that Churchill voted for guarantee to Poland and the following declaration of war. Lloyd George was apparently the only person in the English parliament, who kept a cool head.
THE PRINCE by Nicolo Machiavelli transated to english af W. K. Marriott in full text (pdf)
Literatur: "The Origins of The Second World War" by A. J. P. Taylor - Penguin Books.
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