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11. Where was Danevang?

But this was Midgaard. Then, where was the original Danevang?

"Danevang" is an old name for Denmark, used in medieval folksongs.

Some ethnic elements in Denmark's history are associated with the tribe name Dani and can be traced to Asia. The suffix in Dane-vang gives associations towards cradle (vugge), that is an ancient original home. The most obvious candidate for Dane-vang is the modern Chinese city of Dun-Huang.

Dun-Huang More than two thousand years ago the Yuezhi (Yuch Chi) people lived here in the northern part of the province of Gansu. They lived on farming, cattle breeding and they raised horses. They burned their dead. The Chinese knew them for their hairy bodies, their white skin, their love for fried peacocks and for their great beer consumption.

Yuezhi were armed with spears, swords and bows, they used chain mail. They cut their hair at the shoulders, except the king, who had long hair, tied up with a band. In Europe at the same time the Frankish royal family, the Merovings, also had long hair, just think of Bengtson's novel, "The longhaired Merovings".

Here in Gansu they had lived "allways".

Ancient Chinese sources describe the existence of "white people with long hair" (the Bai people of the Shan Hai Jing). Shan Hai Jing is a Chinese classic text that is at least 2,200 years old. It is largely a fabled geographical and cultural account of pre-Qin dynasty China as well as a collection of mythology.

The Yuezhi people arrived at the Shang court in King Tang’s era (about 1000 BC) and also in a list of tribute bearers from the Beidi (or northern minorities) in Yi Zhoushu (Lost Book of Zhou 400- 300 BC) during Zhou Dynasty. A Guan Zi noted in the third century BC that a politician named Guan Zhong put forward a suggestion that "(we) should accept the jades of the Yuzhi from the North." Obviously they made a living by trading with jade from Tarim Basin to China. All jade which have been found in China from the Shang and Zhou dynasties origin from Tarim Basin; and the raw material have most likely been supplied by Yuezhi traders.

Jadefigure from Shang Dynasty - a kneeling man Jadefigures from Shang Dynasty found in Henan - a man and a woman found together
Left: Jade figure from Shang Dynasty China about 1000 BC - a kneeling man - he seems to have big eyes and a broad nose and a kind of fish tail or snake tail.
Right: Jade figures from Shang dynasty found together in Henan representing a man and a woman - they have protruding eye lids as modern Asian and broad noses.

All of the jade items, excavated from the tomb of Fuhao of the Shang dynasty (1600 BC – 1046 BC), were from Khotan in Tarim Basin. It was more than 750 pieces.

During the Shang and Zhou Dynasties (1600 BC - 200 BC) the area around Northen Gansu was inhabited by three nomadic tribes the Qiang, Wusun and Yuezhi (also sometimes called Rouzhi).

However during the time of the Qin Dynasty (221 BC - 206 BC) Yuezhi was on the peak of its power and gained control of the whole area of Northern Gansu.

Chinese sources tell, that their northern neighbours were the Heptalites, who originally lived on the Dzungaria plain north of Tien shan Mountains.

Jadefigures from Shang Dynasty
Shang dynasty jade items - about 1000 BC.
From left to right: kneeling man or woman with broad nose and big eyes, a man also with broad nose and big eyes, a snake with a kind of fishtail, a little fat snake, another snake with real snaketail.
It seems like the Shang dynasty chinese had big eyes and rather broad noses; and they had a great interest in snakes.

Yuezhi made a truce with their despised neighbours to the East, the Xiongnu (the Huns), who supplied a hostage, a Xiongnu prince named Modun. The Xiongnu king broke the truce and attacked the Yuezhi. They wanted to kill their hostage, but Modun stole a good horse and escaped to the East.

Jade figure from Shang Dynasty representing a snake or dragon with fishtail - a Midgard worm?
Chinese jade figure from Shang Dynasty representing a snake or dragon with fishtail - a Midgard worm?

Modun killed his father and became king of the Xiongnu, and it was the start of their heydays. He waged war against the Yuezhi, killed their king and made a drinking cup of his skull, and drove them away from their ancient land in 170 BC.

What astonished the Chinese most was, that Yuezhi had so much hair all over on the body and in the face. (From "The Mummies of Urumchi" and "In Search of the Indo-Europeans")

It is assumed that they spoke the extinct Indo-European language Tocharin A, found in documents from Dun Huang that the explorers brought home in the early twentieth century. The documents were mostly Buddhist sutras, which are also also known from other languages and therefore Tocharin is fairly well explored.

In the 5th century AC, scholar, translator and monk Kumarajiva, while translating texts into Chinese, used the chinese character for Yuezhi to represent Tochar.

A typical deformated skull - Museum of Stavropol Typical artificial deformated skull from Melanesia Coin with a portrait of the Kushan king Vima Kadphises
The photo to the left is from the Museum of Stavropol in South Russia - a typical deformated skull, most likely from a Goth, Hun or Alan - or could it be from a Dane? The next one shows a typical example of artificial deformated skull from Melanesia. The last one is a coin showing the Kushan king Vima Kadphises - he had deformated skull - and royal ponytail. The Kushans were descendants of the Yuezhi.

The language Tocharin A has strikingly many words in common with Danish, such as "ko" (cow), "malke" (to milk), "nu" (now) and "samme" (same). "Son" is called "se" in Tocharian A, it recalls the "suffix" in traditional Danish surnames, Han-sen, Niel-sen, Mad-sen and so on. The final "n" can be an grammatical inflection ending, they are many in Indo-European languages. (in Danish we ad -n or -en to make a noun definite, then "-sen" can mean "the son"). The word "se" (son) also recalls the widely used Chinese suffix "-zi [-ze 'e]," which also is the basic Chinese words for "son".

Yuezhi used skull deformation of some baby boys. This was a very widespread habit in Central Asia on this time, and most likely it had been for thousands of years. Chinese scientist told in TV that during excavation of a big burial ground from Shang Dynasty (about 1600 BC - 1000 BC) at Puyang in Henan, they found signs of artificial skull deformation. The head of the newborn baby boy was gently squized between two pieces of wood or tied up with bands. The skull of a newborn baby is very soft and can easily be deformated.

The American professor Erik Trinkaus found i 1982 in the Shanidar Cave i Iraq a Neaderthal skull, 45.000 years old, which showed sign of artificial skull deformation. So withouth exaggeration one can say that is a very old human habit. (se: 15. Who was the Jotuns?)

Tocha-
rian A
Danish English
sas et one
wu to two
tre tre three
stwar fire four
pæn fem five
sæk seks six
spæt syv seven
okæt otte eight
nu ni nine
sæk ti ten
kænt hun-
drede
hun-
dred
pacer fader father
macer moder mother
pracar broder brother
ser søster sister
yuk hest horse
ko ko cow
vak stemme voice
nom navn name
malk (at) malke (to) milk
sam samme same (as)
tæm dem them
nu nu now
se søn son
Chinook indian from the American West coast with a baby in a wooden squize Coin with a protrait of the Kushan king Vhishka Coin with a portrait of the Heptalites king Left: A Chinook indian from the American West coast with a baby in a wooden squize.
Mid: The portrait on the coin represent the Kushan king Vhishka with deformated skull - notice his royal pony tail hair style.
Right: The portrait on the last coin represent the king of Heptalites, The White Huns. They used also artificial skull deformation. Now a days many think that Heptalites was a people closely related to Yuezhi.

The modern Chinese pronunciation of the name of the city of Dun Huang with the sound expressed by some danish letters will be someting like "Dån Hwuang", that is very close to "Dan Vang." The Danish vowel, "å", to be slightly more "å" like than in the Danish pronunciation of "o" in the name of the Russian River Don.

Yuezhi ceramic found near Hami
Yuezhi ceramic found near Hami.

Dun-Huang is not a standard Chinese city name, like something with -zhou or -jing. It is a name, where the components cannot be recognized in most other city names in China.

Sir Aurel Stein, one of the early explorers of Central Asia, thought he knew that the meaning of Dun-Huang is something like "Blazing beacons" (meaning the enemy is coming).

Indeed, it is hard to imagine a city bearing the name "Blazing Beacons." A city must have a good name.

The Kushan king Kanisha 100 - 146 AC - statue from India
The picture shows the Kushan king Kanisha with club and sword -100-146 AC; the statue is from India. Note his sturdy boots, that must have been hot in the Indian climate. Perhaps Yuezhi was a conservative people, who was loyal to their original traditions from their homeland. Kushans were descendants of Yuezhi.

Which merchant would choose to settle down in a city with such a name, with the prospect that the Barbarians would come every second year, steal his gold, burn his warehouse and give him an even worser treatment. Who would risk a future with his family in such a place?

It is far more likely, that "Dun-Huang" is an ancient name given the city by those, who lived there before the Huns and the Chinese came. This is often the case with place names. And that the Chinese, whom Stein talked with, simply did not know, what it meant. They have just given him an answer in order to make the guest happy and not to lose face. Actually, most often we do not know the meaning and origin of place names, also in Denmark.

The majority of the Yuezhi left the land of their ancestors in northern Gansu, defeated by the Huns. It happened about 170 BC.

Most of them travelled west and tried first to settle on the plain at the Ili River, where they however were defeated by the Wusun People. Then they settled in the Fergana Valley and some years after in Sogdiana around and south of the city of Samarkand. They continued to Bactria, and in the end they created the Kushan Empire in present days Afganistan, Pakistan and the northern India.

Yuezhi's migration from Gansu over the Ili plain, Fergana Valey, Bactria to the now a days Afganistan, Pakistan and northern India The Chinese called those, who travelled to the west "Da Yuezhi", which means "Great Yuezhi". The remaining Yuezhi withdraw higher up in the Qilian and Kunlun mountains. The Chinese called them "Xiao Yuezhi", which means "Little Yuezhi".

In the third century wrote the Chinese scholar, Wan Zhen, an addition to the historian Sima Qian's work, "Shi ji". "The Great Yuezhi [Kushans] is located about seven thousand li (about 3000 km) north of India. Their land is at a high altitude; the climate is dry; the region is remote. The king of the state calls himself "Son of Heaven".

"There are so many riding horses in this country", he continued. "that the number often reaches several hundred thousand. City layouts and palaces are quite similar to those of Da-qin (the Roman empire). The skin of the people there is reddish white. People are skilful in horse archery. Local products, rarities, treasures, clothing, and upholstery are very good, and even India cannot compare with it." (translated by Joe E. Hill)

The Han Dynasty document, "Hou Han Shu" tells, that when the Yuezhi arrived in their new home in the West, they divided themselves into five groups. The name of one of the groups was "Guise Huang." This group later won power over the other four groups, it is said, and in the West they became known as "Kushans".

It is said that the name "Kushans" has been derived from "Guise-Huang." Then we can conclude that the ending "-Huang" may have had some tradition for the Yuezhi People. Which makes it even more likely, that the name "Dun-Huang" origins from Yuezhi.

Female musician no.1 from the Kushan temple at Khalchayan i modern Uzbekistan Female musician no.2 from the Kushan temple at Khalchayan i modern Uzbekistan Female musician no.1 from the Kushan temple at Khalchayan i modern Uzbekistan
Photos shows musicians from the Kushan temple at Khalchayan i modern Uzbekistan.

The great traveller Zhang Qian, visited Yuezhi in their new home in the West and tried to persuade them to support the Han Dynasty in the fight against the Xiong Nu. But they were not interested; they had found "a valley, rich and fertile, and rarely disturbed by invaders."

When Zhang Qian in 140 BC, passed the salty lake, Lop Nor, on his way to "Da Yuezhi" in the West, he reported that: "The Loulan and Gushi people lived in fortified towns along the shore of the salty marsh." It was precisely Yuezhis former home, so they Gushi people, whom Zhang Qian saw, must have been some of the remaining Yuezhi, which did not travel to the west.

It is reasonable to assume that "Gushi" is the first part of "Guise-Huang", as it apparently is about the same people.

Zhang Qian on his way to the West - motive from the caves in Dun Huang
The picture is a mural from the caves at Dun Huang showing Zhang Qian on his way to the West.

So it can also be reasonably assumed, that the first part of "Dun-Huang" and "Guise-Huang" is the name of the people in question, "Guise" and "Dun", and the last part means maybe homeland, tribe, place of origin or kingdom, we do not know.

In modern Chinese "wang" means "king". It is pronounced "wang", where "w" is pronounced a little u-like, as in English. Wang-ze'e means prince and Ny'e-wang means queen. Below is a photo of a copy of a lion from the Tang Dynasty with the word Wang in the forehead, a symbol of power. Indeed, the pronunciation of Wang is very close to the last part of the name Dun Huang, but the Chinese will probably teach us, that it is two different words because they have two different characters. In Chinese, there is the numerous number of words that sound alike, or nearly alike, but are represented by different characters. Therefore, they are very concerned about, which characters are representing the word. But if it is, as we believe, that the Chinese from the beginning did not know, what the name "Dun-Huang" meant and that they just assigned it some characters, then this argument is less important.

Copy of lion from Tang Dynasty with the character for king A figure found in India which is supposed to represent Yuezhi.
Left a photo of a copy of a lion from the Tang Dynasty with the character wang in the forehead.
Right: A figure found in India is supposed to represent Yuzhi. They wear warm cloth compared to the Indian climate. Perhaps it had been a conservative people who sticked firmly to their traditionel costums.

A Danish "a" is difficult to pronounce for some people, I think. Take for example the name Schwarznegger, which should be pronounced with a marked "a" as it is in Germany and Denmark, but the Americans have already started to pronounce it "Schwårznegger" because it is easier for them. It is by no means unlikely, that an initial "Dan" has become to a "Dån" over two thousand years. It would actually be an insignificant change the long time span taken in consideration.

We also know from history that when the Qi Dan's first king, Abaoji in 916 AC, founded his new capital, he gave it the name "Lin-Huang", that is Lin Vang. It was in the present Inner Mongolia near today's Liaoning Province. The last part of the name is quite as the last part of "Dun-Huang." It supports the that "Huang" may have meant something like royal seat or kingdom. (see Chapter 17 on Qi Dan)

So all in all "Dun-Huang" in northern Gansu is a quite qualified bid for an original "Dan-Vang."

Yuezhi writtn with characters
This is the Chinese characters for Yuezhi. The first character means "moon." The second character means "zhi", something like "member" or "supporter". In the old days daughters in a Chinese family often had no names, it was only girls, they were just assigned a number. When a woman then married into another family, which was called, let's say "Chen", so this character was used, and the girl was called "Chen Zhi". Apparently the Yuezhi people worshipped the moon.

Below, the hairstyle with a hairpillow sloping on one side of the head can be recognized on on the decapitated head from Osterby in Germany, the Terra Cotta Soldiers and on the Kushans from Hadda in present Afganistan. See pictures below.

A decapitated head from the time of the Roman Empire fond in a bog at Osterby in Germany Many Terra cotta soldiers have a hair pillow in  left side To faces found at Hadda - en Kushan excavation in Afganistan. The Roman historian Tacitus, who lived in Osterby Man's era, describes the hairstyle as typical of the Suebi tribes of Germania. It was the "Suebian knot", which "distinguishes the freeman from the slave."

For Tacitus, the Suebi comprises the Semnones, who are "the oldest and noblest of the Suebi"; the Langobardi; the seven tribes of Jutland and Holstein: Reudigni, Aviones, Anglii, Varini, Eudoses, Suarini, Nuitones; the Hermunduri on the Elbe; three tribes along the Danube: Naristi, Marcomanni, Quadi; the Marsigni and Buri. Then there is a mountain range, and beyond that, in the drainage system of the Vistula, Tacitus places five tribes of the Lugii including the Harii, Helvecones, Manimi, Helsii and Naharvali; the Gothones, Rugii, Lemovii along the Baltic Sea; all the states of the Suiones, located in peninsular Scandinavia; and finally the non-Germanic Aestii, and the Sitones, beyond the Aestii along the Baltic yet "continuous with the Suiones". Then says Tacitus: "Here Suebia ends".

As Tacitus explains: "The Suebi do not, like the Chatti or Tencteri, constitute a single nation. They actually occupy more than half of Germania."

It sems like the Suebi idendity did not depend on racial descent or language. I must have been a kind of religious or political unity.

Sogdiana A coin with a portrait of a Sogdian king However, back to Asia.

The map shows Sogdiana, on a coin can be seen a portrait of a Sogdian king with crown.

The Sogdians were more or less direct descendants of Yuezhi. According to the classical document "Xin Tang Shu", there were from the beginning nine groups of Sogdians. That were Kang (Samarkand), An (Bukhara), Cao, Shi2 (Tashkent), Mi, He, Huoxun, Wudi and Shi4 (KESH) (Shi2 and Shi4 covers different pronunciation of the same characters). The king of Kang (Samarkand) claimed that he descented from the Yuezhi, and that his ancestors had lived in the city of Zhaowu in Gansu, north of the Qilian Mountains. Princes from Kang created the other eight groups. ("Xin Tang Shu Chapter 221 part 2," The Western Regions Part 2", it is said)

The name "Kang" can still be recognized in the last part of the name of the city Sarmarkand.

The Sogdians lived roughly in current Uzbekistan around Sarmakand. Sogdiana never became a united nation, it was a loose union of rivalizing cities. In 705 AD they were defeated by newly converted Muslims from the Middle East. A few years after the Muslims wiped out the nobility after an unsuccessful rebellion.

The Eastern wall of the Sogdian Wirkak's sarcophagus in Xian
A photo of the eastern wall of the Sogdian Wirkak's sarcophagus in Xian.

In 1220 AC moreover a the major part of the population was killed by Djengis Khan's Mongolian-Turkish armies.

Never the less the Japanese-Chinese Expedition in the early 1980's managed to find an old man in Tadjikistan, who still spoke sogdian.

In Xian have been found a total of three sogdian tombs, some say four. Besides, in 1999 was found the richly decorated Yu Hong's tomb in a southern suburb of Taiyuan in Shanxi. The most famous is in Xian and belongs to Wirkak and his wife Wiyusi. His Chinese name was Shi Jun. The tomb is a sarcophagus designed as a house, richly decorated with stone carvings on all sides. The east wall shows the most interesting scene, which recalls the Scandinavian myth about Hermods passing of the Gjallar Bridge on his way to the Underworld to retrieve Balder from the dead.

Wirkak and his wife are on their way over the Cinvat Bridge to the Sogdian Paradise. Top right Wirkak and his wife can be seen feasting in Paradise, over them is the Sogdian God, Wesparkar, who welcomes the deceased.

Drawing of the eastern wall of the sogdian Wirkak's sarcophagus in Xian
Drawing of the eastern wall of the sogdian Wirkak's sarcophagus in Xian.

Upper left the sun god, Mithra, is hovering over the World together with some "apsaras", which are a kind of angels and winged horses. A sinner seemed to be in free fall down towards the water. Under the bridge monsters are lurking for the sinners, who will be rejected by the guardians of the bridge. On the bridge the deceased are assumed to meet a fair young woman, who will be the personification of their life's merits.

Wirkak and his wife died very old after a long life filled with peaceful deeds, merchant voyages and important negotiations. On his sarcophagus is no hint of struggle and strife. And this is why; they came to Paradise, one can suppose.

The Scandinavian mythology has a completely similar motive, but as it were reversed.

After Balder's death Hermod undertook to ride to "Hel", the Underworld, to get him back into the world of the living. Hermod came to the Gjallar Bridge, which the deceased must pass to get to the Underworld. Here Modgun, a young woman, the guardian of the bridge, stopped him. Hermod negotiated the agreement, that if everyone and everything in the whole world would cry because of Balder's death, then he would be released from the Underworld.

For the Sogdians Nana was a very important goddess. Among the Scandinavian Gods, she had a more withdrawn role as Balders wife.

The four armed godness Nana with the sun in one hand and the moon in the other - sitting on a lion
The four armed godness Nana with the sun in one hand and the moon in the other - sitting on a lion.

In the Scandinavian mythology the World of the deaths on the other side the bridge is a dark and sinister shadow-world. Only men, who die in their beds of illness and disease, will come there. Men who die by weapons will come to Valhalla, a cheerful and wonderful place, where they every day will sit benched at Odin's table along with other heroes.

It looks like, that Dan of the Aesirs descent once in their past had worshipped the same Arian religion as the Sogdians. But they have dismissed it as a soft and sloppy superstition. They have downgraded the Sogdian Paradise to a dark and sinister underworld. Maybe they changed belief, forced by the harsh necessity of the changing time.

On the Sogdian Wirkak's sarcophagus was also a stone carving of a dancing god. (center), the dancing god's face looks like the very traditional Chinese "Monkey King" mask (right). It is ugly, and with his teeth standing right out of his mouth.

The Chinese myth of "Monkey King" tells, that he was a god who lived in heaven. But because he was so ugly and misbehaved, the other gods threw him out of Heaven. He came to Earth, and here he taught people to use fire, make pots, etc. some say.

The God Shivas cosmic dance Dancing Sogdian god found in Xian Traditionel Monkey King Mask
Left the god Shivas cosmic dance - Indian figure from the eighteenth century. Next the dancing Sogdian god found in Xian on Wirkak's tomb. To the right a traditional chinese monkey king mask.

The dancing God four arms are radiating from the head, and seems to form a swastika-like figure, as we know it from history. The little man below seems to hold up the God.

To the left an Indian figure, which shows the god Shiva's cosmic dance. Note the unlucky man, whom the god is trampling upon. It is a similar figure as the little man on Wirkak's grave. So I think, that we can assume, that the figure on the sogdian Wirkak's grave also shows the almighty god's cosmic dance. The dance, which we remember in Danish culture, as the Sun dancing Whitsunday morning at sunrise.

Then Wirkak's tomb has features, which are pointing at India, China as well as Scandinavia.

It is interesting that the Sogdiske findings from China are richer than the findings from Sogdiana itself. One gets the impression that the center of the Sogdiske culture was in China, and Sogdiana was just a satellite area.

Another Dan Vang may have been the "Dan Huan, which according to" Weilue "and" Hou Han Su "(see classic texts) was wiped out by Ju Chi. In the "Weilue" is told about the western areas along the third route to the western areas. Here is mentioned a "Dan Huan", which I think may be a "Dan Vang":

Traces of Dan in Middle Earth
The Aesirs came from Asia, wrote Snorre. But we do not know where in Asia they came from. But looking at the map we see that the interressting area roughly is stretching from Manchuria over Inner Mongolia, Gansu, Qinghai and Xin Jiang.

"23.4 The Kingdom of Danhuan (Tan-Huan):
The seat of the king's government is the city Tan Huan, and it lies at a distance from Ch'ang (Xi'an) of 8870 li (One" li "is about 0.41 km. So the distance is just under 3600 km). There are 27 households, 194 individuals with 45 persons, who are able to bear arms. There are the following civil servants: The noble Fu-kuo (The aid of the State), The Head of state, generals of the left and right wing and the chief translator."

Dan Huan written with characters
Dan Huan written with characters.

How, the name "Dan Huan" was pronounced by the local Dan two thousand years ago, is difficult to judge. First it had been converted to some ancient Chinese characters, then it has been maintained for a few thousand years, while the Chinese language evolved very much. Next, in modern time it has been translated to alphabet as "Dan Huan". But it is reasonable to pronounce it as "Dan Hwuan(g)" (Danish pronunciation).

Dan Huan was located along the third route to the West, north of the Tien Shan Mountains and north of Pamir. Some researchers place Dan Huan, near the modern city of Urumchi, the capital of the Xin Jiang Province. The highly accurate demographic data suggest a fairly close relationship with the Chinese.

But in any case if Dan Huan was the first and only Dan Vang, then 45 armed men must be said to have been a very humble beginning, and since the situation is absolutely improved.

Dan Huan's neighbour kingdom was called "Wu Tan Zili", it sounds like the German name for Odin, Wo Dan. It was located between Dan Huan and Wusun. In "Hou Han Shu" it is only named Wu Tan. They were obviously a kind of "Wu-Dan". Note that Xiao Yuezhi's town near Koko Nor was called "Zilu" which is very close to "Zili".

Wu Tan Zili written with characters
Wu Tan Zili written with characters.

NB There are different systems to convert Chinese characters to the alphabet. There are "Wade-Giles" and "ping ying", only to mention the most used. Therefore the spelling of Chinese words can be quite different).

A few hundred kilometres southeast of the city of Dun Huang, a little up in the Qilian Mountains is "Shan Dan." That means Mountain Dan. National Geografic "made a television presentation of the Silk Road. Here they visited the "Shan Dan" as a place where daily life went on as two thousand years ago. They lived from breeding horses. Probably it has always been called Shan Dan, and the locals do not know why.

As it now appears, that there may have been more "Dan-Vang," we must face, that we do not know how many. It may be such that the Dane-Vang we are searching, has existed, but simply did not find its way into any written historical sources.

The Roman historian Pliny (Pliny VI, 22) had knowledge of a people called "Ta-gora", who had crossed the river Danais from east to west, together with "other Scythians".

However in ancient time two rivers were called Danais, namely the river Don and Jaxartes. There were also two Pliny, that is the elder and younger. But it must have happened about 100 AC with a good margin.

In Justins's Prologue of Pompeius Trogus' book XLII we can read: "Reges Tocharorum Asiani interitusque Saraucarum", which means "The Asiani became kings of the Tochari and annihilated the Saka king (in Bactria)".

It reminds of the "Danes" led by kings of the "Aesir's" descent. Other sources mention "Asiani" as a seperate people.

The whole thing is covered in clouds and difficult to see through. But in any case; We are on the trail of the Danes.
About the language Tocharin see: Tocharian Online - Todd B. Krause and Jonathan Slocum Linguistics Research Center

See a Tocharin A dictionary: Glossary Tocharian

About the Mithra religion: Mithraism - David Fingrut on Bill Thayer's Web Site

See a comparison between the Mithra cult and Christianity: Mithra's Contributions - Iinnvista

Albert J. Carnoy has written seven chapters on Iranian Mythology - Robert Bedrosian's Homepage
Historisk Iransk religion kaldes også Arisk religion.

At Metropolitan Museum of Art - Yu Hong's tomb is an interactive page, which shows all parts of Yu Hong's tomb.

On: Absolute Astronomy - Yuezhi. a rather comprenhensive articel about the investigtions of Yuezhi can be found - with further links.

Same website has also a good article about Kushans even it repeat itself: Absolute Astronomy - Kushan Empire. with further links.

See also Hans Loeschner's: Notes on the Yuezhi - Kushan Relationship and Kushan Chronology (pdf) about the Yuezhi's migrations.

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